Referencing & Endnote

Advice on referencing, EndNote and the APA style used in most courses here at Lincoln.

Referencing principles

Referencing is essential to successful scholarly communication. It acknowledges the contributions of others and helps avoid plagiarism.  Referencing 101 explains the importance of referencing in academic writing and when you need to use it.

The most common style used is the American Psychological Association (APA) Style. Some lecturers or departments may specify an alternative style, consult your lecturer or supervisor if you are unsure what style to use.

To assist you with the details of your chosen style the EndNote software package is available to all staff and students.

Referencing 101
Handout explaining why we reference and how to quote and paraphrase as well as basic APA references

4 Steps to Avoiding Plagiarism Video

Incorporating sources into your writing

Reading a reference
This tutorial will help you identify and find items included in reference or reading lists


APA style


Installation and Access

EndNote Classes

Importing references from Library Databases

Help and Troubleshooting

Advanced Features

Book into a Workshop

Once created, an EndNote library can be used to import citations in hundreds of styles into MS Word, and to manage information. This two hour session includes Introduction to EN (first hour), and more advanced features of EN like customising the library, stable URLs, and attachments (second hour). Participants are welcome to attend one or two hours of the session.


Other styles & tools

Citing data

Whether to add information to a new study or illustrating why a course of research wasn’t taken through citing negative research data, using data from another researcher’s study is becoming more commonplace. Lincoln University uses APA style.

For datasets with a DOI (digital object identifier):

Author/Rightsholder. (Year). Title of data set (Version number) [Description of form]. doi:10.###/###

Skinner, E.-T. & Fitchett, D. (2013). Basic data management practices. doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.781296

For datasets without a DOI:

Author/Rightsholder. (Year). Title of data set (Version number) [Description of form]. Retrieved from URL

Pew Hispanic Center. (2004). Changing channels and crisscrossing cultures: A survey of Latinos on the news media [Data files and code book]. Retrieved from

For purchased datasets:

Rightsholder, A. A. (Year). Title of dataset (Version number) [Description of form]. Publication Location; Name of producer if different from rightsholder.

Davis, J. (1988). Familiar birdsongs of the Northwest [Sound cassette]. Portland, OR: Portland Audubon Society.

For unpublished or personal datasets:

Author, A. A. (Year). [Description of study topic]. Unpublished raw data.

Jones, A. W. (2012). [Personnel survey]. Unpublished raw data.

Law citations

New Zealand Legal Statutes and Cases – in APA 6th

This style is appropriate for LU students needing to cite the occasional act or case (primary sources). This guide uses an adapted APA style.

Treat all secondary sources (commentary, text books, journal articles, etc.) as normal APA.

For more extensive use of legal materials consult your lecturer or supervisor and/or the New Zealand law style guide.

Statute / Act

Reference list entry:

Immigration Act 2009.

In text citation:

Recent legislation (Immigration Act 2009) has ….

Section in a statute

Reference list entry:

Employment Relations Act 2000, s 63.

In text citation:

….employees who are not members of a union … (Employment Relations Act 2000, s 63).

Case reported in the New Zealand Law Reports

Reference list entry:

Hunt v Muollo [2003] 2 NZLR 322.

In text citation:

The case Hunt v Muollo [2003] 2 NZLR 322 shows…